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    菜單導航

    新東方2008年高考指南:高中詞匯學習的六道坎_參觀大學

    作者:?楊超月 發布時間:?2021年08月31日 16:57:51

      著名語言學家威爾金斯(D.A.Wilkins)曾經說過:“Without grammar, very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed.”這句話的中文意思是“沒有語法,難以表達;沒有詞匯,寸步難行?!比绻麑⒂⒄Z學習比做一座高樓大廈,詞匯就好比其下基石,作用無可替代。高中英語學習從應試角度上審視都是以高考為風向標的,下面筆者通過對浙江省英語高考的理解以及一些英語高考題目來透析高中詞匯學習的六道坎。

      第一道坎是詞匯量的要求,浙江省高考大綱要求考生掌握3500個左右的單詞,這個數字較以往高考改革前的1800個詞匯量可謂天差地別,而較大學英語四級4500個詞匯量相差不大,這個對比說明了中學教育對于詞匯量的重視,但是考生大可不必對這個要求的詞匯量緊張,因為平時這些單詞已經潛移默化地滲透于課文和教材當中,并且有2000個左右的單詞是屬于take, go, keep, come, turn, hello, speak等很簡單的無需記憶的詞,剩下來的1500個左右較有難度的則是需要大家去強記的,過了這道坎,對于單詞的認知層面也就跨越過去了。筆者比較推薦的方法是不要去買一本很厚的3500個單詞的詞匯書去啃,而是有篩選性地將1500個較難單詞總結出來,并且牢牢地掌握住。這樣做既省力又有針對性。

      第二道坎是詞匯辨析,我們首先來看一下下面的幾道高考單項選擇題:

      10. Letterboxes are much more _______in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. (06年浙江省高考)

      A. common B. normal C. ordinary D. usual

      27. Always read the ________ on the bottle carefully and take the right amount of medicine. (06年福建省高考)

      A. explanations B. instructions C. descriptions D. introductions

      24. At the meeting they discussed three different _______ to the study of mathematics.(06年湖北省高考)

      A. approaches B. means C. methods D. ways

      答案:ABA

      上面的三道題分別測試了考生對三組詞的辨析,如果考生平時只是單純地掌握這些單詞的中文釋義而未能對其具體區別和在具體語境中的應用加以重視,做這些題目還是相對有點難度的。所以在平時的復習中一定要加強這方面的區分練習。

      第三道坎是詞組和短語搭配,盡管我們上文提到諸如take, go, keep, come, turn, hello, speak這些單詞在認知層面上無需記憶,但是高考對其也是有所考查的,因為它們后面加上不同的介詞和副詞就會變化成很多意義不同的詞組和短語搭配,比如turn這個單詞就有turn in, turn to, turn up, turn down, turn out, turn around,等等搭配結構。這些詞組和短語搭配通常讓學生難以把握每個意思,容易產生混淆。再看下面幾個高考題目所考查的:

      8. We are trying to ring you back, Bryan, but we think we _________ your number incorrectly. (06年浙江省高考)

      A. looked up B. took down C. worked out D. brought about

      27. As I grew up in a small town at the foot of a mountain, the visit to the village _______ scenes of my childhood. (06年湖北省高考)

      A .called up B. called for C. called on D. called in

      22. The computer system_____ suddenly while he was searching for information on the Internet. (06年遼寧省高考)

      A. broke down B. broke out C. broke up D. broke in

      26. I was just talking to Margaret when Jackson ___. (05年湖南省高考)

      A. cut in B. cut down C. cut out D. cut up

      答案:BAAA

      對于高中詞匯中如此眾多的詞組和短語搭配,我們要對最典型的最??嫉脑~組進行系統地總結記憶,并且將它們一網打盡,不可有漏網之魚。

      第四道坎是詞匯在具體語境中的應用,如今高考越來越重視詞匯在具體語境或者具體使用場景中的應用,越來越不拘泥于以往僅僅從單詞本身出發的較為死板的考法。詞匯離開了具體的語境就會失去生命力,不知所云。正如語言學家呂叔湘先生所說:“詞語嵌在上下文里頭才有生命,才容易記住,才知道用法?!蔽覀兪紫瓤匆幌聠卧~“cover”這個詞在幾種不同語境中的用法:

      Don’t cover your eyes with hands. ( vt. 覆蓋,遮住)

      He made up a story to cover the mistakes. (vt. 掩飾)

      China covers a total area of 96,000,000 square kilometers. (vt. 占地)

      The cover of the magazine is green. ( n. 封面)

      His book covers a wild field. ( vt. 涉及)

      They covered 100 miles a day. (vt. 走過)

      The journalist was sent to cover the traffic accident. (vt. 采訪)

      由此可見,具體語境對于詞匯學習的作用不容小覷,接下來再看一下高考題對具體語境的考查:

      17.—If you like I can do some shopping for you.

      ---That’s a very kind _______.(06年浙江省高考)

      A. offer B. service C. point D. suggestion

      26.It’s quite _______me why such things have been allowed to happen. (06年安徽省高考)

      A.for B.behind

      C產gainst D.beyond

      23.-My family usually goes skating for vacation. I like skating, but I want to try something different this year. (05年重慶高考)

      -__________

      A. Let's go. B. Cheer up. C. Like what? D. Take care.

      34.-Why didn't you buy the camera you had longed for?

      -I had planned to, but I was $50________.(05年福建省高考)

      A. fewer B. less C. cheap D. short

      答案:ADCD

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